How do options help the economy?

Options allow you to place bets to hedge or speculate on non-linear risks. They can be seen as a type of insurance market. For example, protective put options are useful because avoiding the possibility of large losses can be worth slightly reducing profits. But as stock prices rise, brokers must buy more stocks to keep their hedges in balance.

And buying more shares helps drive up stock prices. Each call option has a bullish buyer and a bearish seller, while put options have a bearish buyer and a bullish seller. The overall effect of aligning the perceived costs of options more closely with their economic costs will be that fewer people are given fewer options, but those people will be the key executives and technical staff who can realistically be expected to have a positive impact on a company's stock prices. In other words, the put option will be exercised by the buyer of the option that sells its shares at the strike price, since it is higher than the market value of the share.

Theta increases when options are in the money and decreases when options go in and out of the money. Theta (Θ) represents the rate of change between the price and time of the option, or the temporal sensitivity, sometimes known as the temporary fall of an option. Options allow the investor to trade not only with the movements of stocks, but also with the passage of time and the movements of volatility. The risk of buying put options is limited to the loss of the premium if the option expires worthless.

The range of options you can trade in a stock depends on investor demand, says Hugh Selby-Smith of Talaria Capital, an asset manager based in Melbourne. An option has a fixed life, with a specific maturity date, after which its value is settled among investors and the option ceases to exist. The use of options also allows the investor to trade in the third dimension of the market, if not going in the direction. They are increasingly used in options trading strategies, as computer software can quickly calculate and account for these complex and sometimes esoteric risk factors.

Since put option buyers want the stock price to decline, the put option is profitable when the price of the underlying share is below the strike price. Put options are investments where the buyer believes that the market price of the underlying stock will fall below the strike price on or before the option expiration date. While synthetic positions are considered an advanced options theme, options offer many other strategic alternatives. Specialty traders and hedge funds on the other side of these trades are content to take premiums from option buyers and manage the risks of occasional large losses should bettors' bets pay off.

From a perceived cost perspective, options may seem like an almost free way to attract, retain, and motivate employees, but from an economic cost standpoint, options can be inefficient.